Mood Disorders : Mood disorders are categorized as illnesses that cover major change in mood, these include major depressive disorders, bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder), persistent depressive disorder (chronic low grade depression), cyclothymia (characterized as mild bipolar disorder) and Seasonal affective disorder where individual’s mood is affected by the changes in the seasons.
Psychotic Disorders : Psychotic disorders are mental disorders where an individual loses touch in reality, due to severe confusion in an individual’s personality. The characteristic features of this disorder are hallucinations, delusions, chaotic speech, incoherent speech, and unusual behavior. The individual loses touch in reality and has difficulty in determining what is real. Hallucinations are sensory perceptions occurring internally where it can be visual or auditory. But these hallucinations may occur in gustatory sensations wherein the individual may perceive tastes, along with olfaction wherein the individual may perceive odors and smells that aren’t really present. A delusion on the other hand is an individual’s belief that is inaccurate at least and false at most, the individual holds onto these “Beliefs” leading to personal, relational and social disorders. An example is the “Messiah complex” wherein an individual may believe that he was sent to save the world or even claim that he is the resurrection of Jesus Christ. There may also be persecutory delusions wherein the individual may feel that a conspiracy is against him, that others are harassing him, planning on attacking him or even poisoning his food. To others these may appear unusual behaviors but to the person suffering from psychotic disorders these are very real to them.
Anxiety Disorders : Anxiety is a normal part of an individual’s life, people feel it when faced with problems, work, taking tests or before making important life decisions. But for individual’s with anxiety disorder, they feel an overwhelming sense of worry and anxiety that may debilitate or hinder their normal functions, day to day activities even their personal and social responsibilities. These episodes may affect school and work performance.
The most common and discussed types of anxiety disorders are Generalized disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.
Personality Disorders : Personality disorders are long-lasting patterns of thoughts that are unyielding and inflexible, these patterns f thought may end up impairing the individuals personal, social and relational functions. Most individuals with personality disorders may appear normal and lead customary lives, until increased demands in social settings and stress may trigger unusual behaviors rotted from their unyielding and inflexible patterns of thought.
Eating Disorders : Eating disorders are serious disturbances to an individual’s everyday diet. These may be eating extremely small amounts of food or extreme overeating. An individual who suffers from eating disorders may have started out ingesting smaller or larger quantities of food from what they usually eat, but the urge to eat more or less would eventually spiral out of control. Eating disorders are also usually signaled by extreme distress or concern about an individual’s body weight, size or shape. Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorders are some of the common eating disorders.
Anorexia nervosa is an illness where these individuals would view themselves as overweight, even when they are already underweight. Eating and controlling weight then becomes an obsession. They would then engage in binge-eating, extreme dieting, excessive exercise and misuse of medications to lose weight. Bulimia nervosa is a condition wherein the individual has recurrent episodes of eating unusually large amounts of food with a feeling of lack or no control over these episodes. This is then followed by compensating for the episode by forced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, fasting and excessive exercise. When a person has binge-eating disorders, these individuals lose control over eating. However, these are not followed by purging, excessive exercise or fasting, as in the case of bulimia nervosa. Individuals who suffer from these disorders are often overweight or obese. They are at a higher risk to develop different cardiovascular disease. These individuals experience feelings of guilt, shame and distress that would lead to further binge-eating.
Impulse control disorders : Individuals who suffer from impulse control disorders fail to resist an impulsive act or behavior that may be harmful to the individual or to others. These acts are not premeditated, not considered or thought of in advance, and are those that the individual has little or no control of. These behaviors refer to violent and abusive behaviors, sexual behaviors, gambling behaviors, stealing, fire-starting and self-abusive behaviors. By the nature of impulse control disorders, these can result to illegal or criminal behavior